Monday, 21 January 2013

ETIKA: Takrifan Konsep-konsep Penting

Barbara Mackinnon (2011). 7th, ed, Ethics: Theory and contemporary issues,

     Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company

Description: set of moral principles or values that defines right and wrong for a person or group
Description: (moral) Ethics
Description: objective is to help us decide what is good or bad, better or worse in some general way with regard to a particular ethic issue. How should people act? Examples of behaviors that are judged as right or wrong are honesty, lying, and stealing.
Description: (empirical) Judgment
Description: certain factual beliefs. Examples such as "That was great." What a good movie." "That pie was delicious" All of these statements express approval of something. They do not tell us much about the pie or movie, but they do imply that the speaker thought they were good.
Description: (teleological) Ethical Reasoning
This type of ethical reasoning decides what is right or wrong, better or worse, based on consequences.
Synonyms include: Effect, Result, Outcome, Cause or any wording showing that the reasoning is based on "what has happened" in the past or "what is likely to happen" in the future. Examples "bad for business", "hurts us all", "makes us a second rate nation"
Description: (Deontological) Ethical Reasoning
This type of ethical reasoning decides what is right or wrong, better or worse, based on inherent rightness or wrongness of the ACT itself and possibly also based on the INTENTION(motive) behind it. The results, consequences or outcome are irrelevant. Examples "It's just plain wrong.", "Life is sacred.", "It's my life.", Autonmy, "protecting basic rights"
Description: Relativism
Description: the view that there is no objective right and wrong and that the definition of right or wrong depends on the prevailing view of a particular individual, culture, or historical period. Examples "The winters in Florida are relatively warmer than in Maine.
Description: Ethical Relativism
Description: right or wrong answers. Difference of opinion.
Description: Ethical Relativism
Description: depend on what your culture believes.
Description: the view that moral rules or principles have no exceptions and are context-independent. "no exception" "stealing is always wrong."
Description: tendency to see things in relation to oneself; self-centeredness.
Description: the greatest good (amount of happiness) for the greatest number (of people)
Description: Egoism
Description: a normative theory about how people ought to behave and what they ought to do.
Everyone (or individual) ought to look out for and seek only their own best interest.
Description: concern for others; generosity
Description: Egoism
Description: descriptive, it describes what people are like, that they actions are basically selfishly motivated and unselfish acts are impossible
Their actions seem self-centered because of how they would feel later if they didn't take any action.
Description: Bentham
Description: only the quantity of pleasure or happiness: how much pleasure or how intense it was.
Description: Stuart Mill
Description: quality of the pleasure should also count: Intellectual pleasures are better than sensual.
Description: analysis
Description: way of thinking about a problem that compares the costs of an action to the benefits received
Description: good
Description: want it because it is good in itself (love, friendship, happiness or pleasure)
Description: good
Description: considered as a means to some other good. Examples Fame, fortune, or freedom are instruments good. education - wealth - success - happiness
Description: with Dignity Act
Legalized physician-assisted suicide
According to laws:
*Patient must be a resident of a state which the law is legal.
*2 independent doctors must verify that the patient has fewer than 6 months to live. (terminally ill)
*Patient must be competent
*Patient must have clear & continuing rest, made orally and in writing
*Patient must be able to take the lethal dose of drugs orally
Description: Criteria
Description: brain dead; loss of all detectable brain function. Person is dead.
Description: Vegetative State (PVS)
Description: good brain stem function; unconscious but "awake". Example: Terry Schiavo case
Description: brain stem function; unconscious but "asleep"
Description: Euthanasia
Description: a person to die by withholding or withdrawing measures to maintain life; Stopping or not starting some treatment, which allows a person to die.
Karen Quinlan case 1978 - removal of a feeding tube
Nancy Cruzan case 1990 - was in a PVS state & the removal of a respirator
Description: Euthanasia
Description: something such as administering a lethal drug or using other means that cause the person's death. "mercy killing"
Description: Suicide
Description: form of active euthanasia in which a doctor provides the means for someone to end his or her own life.
Example: Dr Jack Kevorkian except for his last case, which was a form of active euthanasia
Description: of Double Effect
Description: action can have two effects. As in giving pain medication with the goal of relieving pain while the bad secondary effect is death of the patient.
Description: Euthanasia
Description: or others act directly, at a patient's request, to end suffering before a natural end to life
Description: Euthanasia
Description: someone's life painlessly, when they aren't able to request it.
(Example: Turning off a life support machine.)
Description: Measures
Description: or treatments with reasonable hope of benefit, or the benefits outweigh the burdens to the patient. "simple surgery"
Description: Measures
Description: or treatments with no reasonable hope of benefit, or the burden outweigh the benefits to the patient.
Any means used to treat a sick or dying person that is out of the ordinary, or heroic.
Description:'s Moral Theory
Description: the right thing to do regardless the consequence, do not use people for your personal gain (or as a means to an end). "out of duty"
Description: Law Theory
Description: higher law, universal and stable, higher than any laws of any particular society.
Description: Law
Description: legal system based on a written code of laws, law of society
Description: Rights
Description: idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the pursuit to life, liberty, and happiness.
Just plain wrong. humans deserve to be treated right.
Description: quality of doing what is right and avoiding what is wrong
Aristotle felt a virtue is a mean between extreme. Example Courage is a mean between foolhardiness and cowardice.
Description: v. Wade
1973 Supreme Court decision:
*No state may prohibit abortion before the time of fetal viability
*Right to privacy - ability to make decision for oneself about what is one's own
*From the end of the 1st trimester on, states could make laws to ensure medical safety
*Before viability, the decision is left to the woman and her doctor
*After viability, state could prohibit it except when the woman's life or health was endangered.
Description: Principle
Description: or norms for determining when the law may rightly restrict our liberty and why
Description: Principle
Description: law can prevent a person from harming others. As is physical, threatening, harassing, damaging reputation and livelihoods
Description: Harm Principle
Description: action causes harm to society itself. This is relative to the type of society (theocracy, democracy, free-market society, etc) Examples: prohibiting one education, in an Amish community no one should be richer than another, in Muslim countries, women must cover their heads with a scarf.
Description: Principle
Description: may restrict peoples choice to do what they want in order to prevent them from offending other. Unavoidable to many people. Example: Porn magazine in a check out line. A display a nudity T-shirts in a store. A nudist beach which is not clearly marked.
Description: Paternalism
Description: are to protect people from their own behavior / beliefs / ethics of care / opposition. The law is the parent, society is the children. Such laws would be seat belt & helmet laws.
Description: Moralism
Description: that the law may prevent people from doing what is immoral just because it is immoral.
Examples: Its just plain wrong. Living in sin. drinking on Sunday. Prostitution.
Description: Cloning
Description: clones to be used in medical research to find cures for diseases. It is possible to use this type of cloning in conjunction with stem cell therapy
Description: Cloning
Description: type of cloning uses somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) because it transfers the nucleus of a somatic or bodily cell into an egg whose own nucleus has been removed
Description: view of justice
Description: only important thing is HOW a person got their wealth. If the PROCESS was ethical, then its ethical for them to keep it. ie. procedural. How did you win it or obtain it? It is your choice what to do with it.
Description: State View of justice
Whether it's ethical to be wealthy depends on whether you merit the money, if your achievements are worthy, how much effort you put into getting it, and what you're going to do with it. It also asks if you've had a historical advantage that gave you an unfair edge in getting money.
ie. Distributive. merit, achievement. Did you get the money fairly?Did race or sex help you get it? How will you use the it? Will you help your family, community or charity?
Description: Egalitarianism
Description: has exactly the same amount of wealth. If someone gets more wealth, they share it with everyone. The Amish are an example of radical egalitarianism
Description: of Real Equality
It is unjust to treat people differently ... unless we can show that there is a REAL and RELEVANT difference between them.
Real= a difference that is scientifically proven, and based on nature (not just a difference of nurture or how they were raised), and Relevant= a difference that matters in the exact situation or job that we're discriminating against them for.
Description: Baxter's - "People or Penguins"
is anthropocentric.
No interest in penguins for their own sake, only interested in how they have value to humans. A penguin is not worth banning DDT if people benefit from using DDT more than they benefit from having penguins.
Optimal pollution is the best balance between clean ecology and the needs/demands of people for things that cause pollution. Opportunity cost is the trade-off for pollution.
Description: Ecology
is the extreme version of ecocentrism. Deep ecologists believe that everything is important, and any intrusion into nature requires that we show a vital need.

People should have self-realization: their relationship to nature should be as part of nature, not as master of nature.
Aldo Leopold (guy who made up the biotic pyramid) said that humans are "plain citizens" not lord and master over all others.
Anthropocentric (dominant world view) and Deep Ecology (ecocentric)
deep ecology believes that we should reduce human population to improve ecology. recycle is important.
Description: equality
Description: things have equal (intrinsic) worth, people are not worth more.
Description: utilitarianism: based on the greatest good for the greatest number OF PEOPLE. Believes that only people have intrinsic value, everything else only has instrumental value in terms of its use to people.
Uses a cost-benefit analysis to decide what is best to do.
Description: tradition (anthropocentric)
Description: says "man has dominion over the earth" has been translated to mean that everything else is less important than man.
Description: that it is not just humans that have intrinsic value. All things have value of their own, not just in how they're useful to people. some believe that every individual thing has value (such as all deer are valuable and should never be killed), some believe that it is the group that has value (as in, hunting is ok to cull the herd if it's in the best interest of the group).
Description: argument:
is non-consequentialist: not concerned with the consequences of the punishment, but is concerned with punishing the criminal as payback for the crime. "Justice was done", "payback". "eye for an eye" It is a backward looking argument, because it's concerned with paybacks for a crime already committed.
is concerned with Responsibility: the punishment must fit the crime & the perpetrator (they must be proven guilty, unlike the deterrence argument)
Description: argument:
is consequentialist and forward-looking because it is concerned with the future consequences of punishment: will it deter future crime? Believes if something besides the death penalty works better, that should be used.
Will not work for crimes of passion, people who decide the risk is worth the benefit, civil disobedience, insane people.
Description: Perfect Duties
Description: is absolute: telling the truth, honesty
Description: Imperfect Duties
Description: be done, but we can choose when. Allows us some flexibility, we can choose when to give, how much to give and we don't have to do it at every opportunity.
Description: action
Description: more than just "don't discriminate", it is doing something extra to remedy past injustice (remedying past injustice is a nonconsequentialist argument).
Description: affirmative action by quotas.
Allows companies to remedy past discrimination.
Description: singer set the bases for the origination: People for the ethical treatment of animals
Description: to feel pain & suffering
Description: Steinbock's view of speciesism
Description: an anthropocentric view, supports speciesism because human have the ability to be responsible, reciprocate and have self-respect - and animals don't have.
Description: Steinbock
Description: both dogs & children were starving, you would instinctively feed the children first thus, they (animals & people) arent equal.
Description: Steinbock
Description: its ok to use animals in experiments as long as humans will reap some "useful" benefit. But not to cause "unnecessary" pain such as in cosmetic experiments
Description: Singer
Description: experiments are justifiable only if we are willing to experiment on a human-being with the same mental capacity as the animal. i.e. a brain-damaged person
Description: Singer
Description: that we cant be cruel to animals. We should not inflict pain on them because they are sentience beings. thay have a right not to suffer.
Description: Singer
Description: speciesism is wrong just as racism & sexism
Description: W Bush
Description: can only use ES cells line that were already established for stem cell research
Description: the funding & increased lines available to stem cell research
Description: that it is no different and (that) just as we have grown to accept invitro, we will eventually accept reproductive cloning.
Description: cloning is detestable, repungent, not allowed, repulsive no matter what. We should rely on one emotional moral response because there is a reason we feel this way.
Description: cause
Description: use force against another nation, there must be a serious reason to justify it. i.e. reason, justified
There must be a just cause. Crimes against humanity
Description: the probable cost and benefit and compare them with the probable costs and benefits of doing something else or of doing nothing at all.
Description: resort
Description:, threats, and boycott should be tried before a nation goes into war. Consider all options before going into a war.
Description: intention
Description: must be to achieve peace. Conduct of war shouldn't go against making peace.
Description: of just war theory
Description:, there are combatants & noncombatants; those who surrender are noncombatants
Description: Insurance Portability accountability act
Description: of organs from natural or genetically modified animals (pigs) for organ transplants